Wheat Weighty Wealth!

The wheat is a plant crop that is cultivated almost everywhere for its edible seeds with a scientific name of genus Triticum that also includes both the wild and domesticated species of the wheat grain, it is believed to have originated from a beautiful river valley in the Tigris and Euphrates known as the “cradle of civilization” near Iraq, subsequently, it was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE; wheat is in the classes of cereal a name given by the protector of the grain, Ceres who is the Roman Goddess. The wheat grain is from the grass family that has been eaten by humans for thousands of years and when mature produces a dry one seeded fruit generally refer to as wheat kernels that are also called wheat berries consisting of three main parts the endosperm, bran and germ. The white flour is recovered from the endosperm which is the largest segment of the wheat kernel containing also most of the protein and carbohydrates in the seed. The bran is found in the whole wheat flour and it is the highest in fiber richness. The germ is the heart of the wheat grain right in the very core and it is the smallest made up of high fat used for the wheat germ oil. The production of the whole wheat meal or flour includes also the germ while for the processing of the refined white flour the the bran and germ are separated from the endosperm that is used to produced the white flour; the wheat is mostly processed for food, and the refined white flour is obtain from the milled grain while most of the flour produced is used for bread, pasta and pastry products, the by-products of the wheat crop are used for livestock feeds. Wholesome wheat is an essential part of almost everything called food; the wheat market is everywhere just as the wheat by-products that are found everywhere, hence many Nigerian families depend on wheat products as a staple food and also a very important meal that must be served at least twice or thrice in daily diet. Wheat cereal is found in varieties of food products such as the whole and refined wheat flour used for bread, cakes, biscuits, cookies, spaghetti and noodles; the wheat bran known as “Dutsa” in Hausa is used in animal feed production. 
Wheat farming has a great commercial value and a rewarding economic benefit to the wheat grower and the nation Nigeria; the growing of wheat around the northeastern region of Nigeria particularly at the Lake Chad Region, hitherto grew in popularity for its wheat cultivation before the over a decade insurgency which has heartbreakingly brought a decline and destruction to all forms of farming activities, crippling and bringing the northeastern region down onto its knees. The wheat grain is enjoyed by all the Nigerian tribes generally known as “Alkama” in Hausa, “Oka wiit” in Igbo and “Alikama” in Yoruba regions of Nigeria.

Traditional Gurasa Business In Northern Nigeria
The gurasa bread is simply an Arabian bread with a traditionally incorporated touch to blend into the cuisines of the people of Kano, which has gain main popularity and patronage all across the northern cities and through the remote regions all over Nigeria. The locally made gurasa business in Kano is employing millions of Nigerians of all works of life such as the bakers, distributors, retailers, hawkers, housewives, youths, business men and women including also the suppliers of the wheat flour which is the major ingredient used in the making of gurasa; a home business that has turn the lives and livelihoods of all Nigerians engaged in the business of the gurasa bread. A lot of traders journeying through Kano always make a stop-over to purchase the bread in order to supply the customers; while travelers en-route Kano will take home to families and friends the gift of gurasa to have a taste of the northern Nigeria cuisines while the real traders of the gurasa bread specifically journey into the ancient city of Kano to buy truck loads of gurasa to take along other cities and towns as trade. A whole community of settlers in Kano state of northern Nigeria are known to be engaged solely in the business of the gurasa bread, hence named the Gurasa Village while other families are also into the gurasa bread business within their households.
A locally processed and baked traditional Kano state of northern Nigeria special delicacy, just like the popular pita bread that is soft and chewy, a superb and satisfyingly wholesome meal as a snack or as a complete meal with suya-kebab, spices, and drizzle of vegetable oil, soups or sauces of choice any time of the day.
 The traditional gurasa bakery is completely different and unique in taste from the modern method of baking which is done in an enclosed oven or toasting on the stove stop; the uniqueness of Kano gurasa is achieved from the use of traditional baking methods.
Gurasa is a wholesome and welcome meal that is often serve during gatherings and events; it is affordable and also meeting the needs of large gathering during celebration in order to compliment other meals on the menu. The Gurasa locally made bread is not only a cheap snack meal, it is used for religious charity generally known as “sadaka” in Hausa of northern Nigeria whereby the gurasa is bought and brought in large trays before beggars, streets urchins, destitute, families and friends, with an adult male in charge of giving it out to everyone in attendance, shared as a charitable deed to mark a significant event or to seek for blessings for an act of goodness, kindness and sadaka or charity. The traditional Gurasa recipe ingredients are so simple that it is made up of whole-wheat flour or all purpose flour, sugar for sweet or salt for savory gurasa, dry corn stalks to burn in the clay or iron pot to give the traditional gurasa bread its distinct and unique taste, that completely differs from oven bake or stove top gurasa.

Wheat food africa nigeria culture
Wheat food africa nigeria culture

Wholesome Wheat
Wheat is one of the most important and an absolutely necessary food crops in the whole wide world, incorporated and used in almost all food recipes as a major ingredients or coating in some dishes. The millions of fast food outlets all across the world will seized to exist without the wheat; generating employment for the many unemployed around the world from the shoeless kid in northeast Nigeria hawking bread on the hot stony and thorny streets, all the way to the richest executive lording over the top notch fast food giants of the fast food moving train, hence a major revenue churning crop the wheat. 
The wheat method of cooking and the artificial additives in millions of recipes world wide are the major problems in foods prepared, not the wheat as a food crop, if healthily prepared in order to gain its goodness. The many role of wheat in the world’s daily meals are countless, wheat is an important ingredients in some of the most yummy and healthy yogurts in the world, wheat make up most staple foods all across the world as seen in the daily swallow of tuwo in northern Nigeria, used in the ever changing pasta world as presented in different designs and styles with the wheat meal flour, refined flour or the semolina being used as major ingredients. The best of the world sauces, soups and desserts contains the wheat, so with every yummy spoonful that is swallowed, wheat goes down with it; the sweet puddings, crumbly cookies, fluffy pancakes, light as a wind cake, floating doughnuts, the Nigerian perfectly rounded ball of puff-puff, and the Nigerian flakiest chin-chin to the crispiest biscuit of the world, the wheat gives the rumbling stomach satiate and plaster a must satisfying smile upon the faces of people all over the world.

Wheat Bran
The wheat grain consists of three layers which are the bran that is the protective, hard outer fiber rich layer mostly stripped away during the milling process, the germ is the embryo and the refined white flour is made with the endosperm which contains mostly carbohydrates, lipids and protein; the wheat bran is produced for livestock feed and human consumption. The wheat bran is low in calories and an excellent source of nutrients; dietary fiber, also rich in plant compounds and minerals of Vitamin B, Bio-active compounds and protein, it has a sweet nutty flavor, it is used to add texture and taste to breakfast cereals, baked goodies or sprinkle on smoothies, yogurts and to fortify other cereals. The wheat bran is unsuitable for people with gluten or fructan intolerance and it’s phytic acid can affect the absorption of some minerals.

Wheat Wholesome Recipes
Wheat flour, and wheat meals are made into millions of product which depends on the part of the world it is used as a meal or by product; in Nigeria cuisines wheat is more often than not used in daily meals that are served more than twice such as couscous or grits generally referred to as Brabisco Alkama, Fukaso, Pizza, Kunun alkama, Taliya alkama, Tuwon Alkama, Semolina or Semovita for the popularly consumed swallow simply called Semo. A lot of local delicacies depend also on the use of wheat meal and flour to produce the favorite of many individuals known as Gurasa or pita bread, wholemeal flour snacks made into toasted pancakes generally relished in northern Nigeria as Wainar Kwai or savory pancakes which is another locally made Pizza, Nakiya, Danwake is cooked dumplings that is served with spices, Fura steamed dumplings serve with fresh milk; others include Puff-Puff known as Panke, Buns, Meat-pie is the Nigerian stuffed short-crust pastry known as empanada in other parts of the world, crunchy deep fried Chin-chin, Samosa, Shawarma, all across region in Nigeria. Wheat cereal is totally versatile and a top notch, healthy, deliciously wholesome meal when prepared; cooked as refined or whole meal flour in a variety of recipes, try some of the following popular recipes around the world:-

Traditional Toasted Bread Or Gurasa Or Pita Bread
Gurasa bread is made and bake just like pita bread in locally molded round shaped clay or Earthenware pots, a lot of dried corn stalks or husks is collected in its middle and then burn to generate heat suited for the right baking temperature to bake the Gurasa. After pasting the dough round the upper end close to the clay pots opening, a second round of pasting follows below the first row. When baked it is puffed up with the edges crispy, it is lifted away from the stacked up spot with a sharp objects and remove into a large bowl where all baked gurasa are stacked up. To serve gurasa depends on choice and request but generally it is first sliced into triangular shapes just like pizza, grounded kulikuli or groundnut crackers is sprinkle all over, fried groundnut oil is drizzled over it, then spiced up with the local yagi. Suya-kebab, chopped onions, tomatoes and shredded cabbage added as garnish to complete the meal.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole-wheat or all purpose flour Sugar for sweet or salt for savory
Warm water
Traditional Earthenware or clay pot
Mixed Spices or yaji for spicy
Chopped onions, and tomatoes
Shredded cabbage
Ground kulikuli or peanut crackers
Fried Groundnut oil
Serve with Vegetable or pepper soups, sauces, stews, fried eggs or suya-kebab

Recipe Steps
The Gurasa begins with proving the yeast; pour some warm water into a mixing bowl, add the yeast, for sweet Gurasa bread then add sugar and just a pinch of salt to balance the bland taste while for the Savory Gurasa needs only the addition of just salt to taste without adding any sugar, then it is combine together to mix, cover with lid to allow yeast proof.
Sift all purpose flour into a bowl, add some wheat meal flour if prefer or use only either the whole wheat meal flour or all purpose flour which all depends on choice and the individuals wheat tolerance.
Make a well in the centre of the flour and pour in the proven yeast mixture, gradually mix in the flour by bringing the flour into the center of the yeast mixture until all is form into a sticky dough just like for bread.
Cover and place in a warm place undisturbed for two or more hours depending on how fast the dough rises.
Knead the dough again until smooth and soften, cut into equal sizes and mold to form a very soft ball that can be easily plaster in the inner sides of the heated pot without falling off.
Traditionally, it is baked using the dried corn stalks or husks to make a fire inside the clay or iron pot; when the pot is heated up, the Gurasa dough is plaster round the inner top edge of the pot openings in two layers, do not cover the pot. When the Gurasa edges turns crispy golden, it is pull away from the pot with a shape spatula and drop into the collecting bowl.
Serve by cutting the gurasa into pieces, drizzle all over with vegetable oil and sprinkling of spices.
Store in the refrigerator or wrap up and keep in a basket, when needed simply steam it up and serve again as freshly baked Gurasa.

Soft Whole Wheat Bread
A super soft, satisfying, tasty and delicious bread that is absolutely fluffy whuch can be easily peel off layer after layer with a whole lots of healthy dietary fiber that is nourishing and superior to refined flour loaves. Serve with beverages of choice and a good accompaniment as a side dish with soups.

Recipe Ingredients.
Whole wheat meal or flour
Butter, margarine or cooking oil
Honey, brown sugar or Mazarkwaila
Instant dry Yeast
Warm water
Olive oil

Recipe Steps
Meanwhile, sift the whole meal flour into a mixing bowl, sprinkle salt and mix to combine then keep closeby whilst preparing the yeasted mixture. Proof the instant yeast by sprinkling some over warm water, add sugar and stir to mix, cover and allow to form bubbles on the surface.
Cream the butter, with the honey or brown sugar, then mix with the proofed yeast, add milk if desire and blend all together.
Gradually, scoop the flour a little at a time and add to wet ingredients, mixing in with each addition until an uneven bread dough forms.
Transfer onto a lightly flour dusted work surface, knead the dough adding in the remaining wheat flour until a soft, smooth and elastic bread dough is made.
Roll the bread dough into a square shape, then roll as if rolling a rug and shape it into a log-like loaf.
Carefully pick and place in the greased loaf pan, lightly brush loaf with olive oil then cover with the loaf lid or a plastic wrap. Keep it in a warm place undisturbed and let the dough rise, until doubled in size for an hour.
Remove loaf lid or cover, bake in a preheated oven until golden brown on the surface top crust, with that delicious freshly baked bread aroma; once baked slowly remove from the oven and cool slightly before transferring to a baking rack.
Serve sliced anytime of the day with beverages, soups or for sandwiches as a fluffy soft deliciousness.
Store in plastic or loaf bag and keep in the refrigerator.

Whole Wheat Couscous Homemade
A tiny grain-like pasta made with durum wheat, couscous has been given many names ranging from tiny flakes, little crumbles, wheat granules, to wheat pearls, the list just keeps on increasing based on the people and their cultures; the making of couscous from scratch is not easy and to perfect semolina granules takes time. Couscous can be used in a variety of recipes as the main ingredient or as an alternative to breadcrumbs in meat dishes, great in desserts and vegetable porridges known as Gwate in northern Nigeria. Couscous is recognized worldwide as the most treasured traditional cuisines, it is a staple food in most African countries, couscous derived its name from the Arabic word “kuskusu” but now incorporated in menu all around the world. Couscous is cooked with steams of simmering or boiling vegetables, gravy or water until it is light and fluffy. 

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat Semolina Flour
Olive oil, or any favorite cooking oil of choice.
Salt and water.

Recipe Steps
Scoop out into a mixing bowl some semolina or semo as it is popularly called in Nigeria, then sprinkle water all over semo to moisten, with the gloved hands stir continuously, whilst pushing and pressing it down using the ball of the hands, moving and rolling in a circular motion to create tiny granular balls; if too dry then sprinkle or spray some more water and repeat the process.
As soon as some granules are form, transfer into a larger holed sieve and sift out the couscous granules by shaking the sieve from side to side of the left and right motion. Subsequently, repeat the process of sprinkling water, pushing, pressing, rolling and sifting until all is made into couscous.
On medium heat and a slowly simmering hot water, steam the couscous in a traditional steamer; stir occasionally for even steaming, then cover for the last few minutes before removing from the heat.
Quickly remove from steam to avoid clumping up the tiny granules, sprinkle salt and drizzle some vegetable or olive oil all over it then spread out to air dry or use the dehydrator to evaporate excess moisture; cool off and store in airtight jar or bag.

Cooking couscous is very easy and so simple; bring water to boil, add seasonings and spices, drizzle some favorite cooking oil or simply drop into the boil water a little lump of butter. Stir and mix couscous into the boiling liquid with just enough water to moisten the couscous granules. Immediately remove from heat, then cover and allow to soak up the hot liquid completely thereby, making the couscous double in size. Fluff it up with a fork, serve on its own or with vegetable stir-fries, soups or sauces of choice.

Semolina and Semovita Or Semo
Semolina and semovita are by products of wheat used for preparing the popular Nigerian swallow generally called semo; also used for making pasta, couscous, incorporated in a lot of recipes such as porridges or gruels, desserts and various dishes. The semolina is made from the durum wheat that has been made into the texture of sugar after processing and milling into coarse granules; it is further processed into the popular Nigerian semovita with added cassava or corn flour fortified with vitamins to make up for what is lost during processing, thus simply put the semolina is from wheat and the semovita is from semolina which are used in different swallow meals. The various swallow dishes are served with traditional vegetable soups like the spinach soup called efo riro, miyan yakuwa made from the hibiscus plant leaf, egusi, okro, bitter leaf soup, beans soup gbegiri, miyan kuka is the baobab leaf soup, idikankon or afang soup the list of soup is endless, to make it short it can be served with soups of choice.  The Whole wheat meal is made from the unprocessed wheat which contains the bran that is the outer covering of the grain, the germ and endosperm where the former is at the core of the grain and the latter hold tightly encompassing the core of the grain. The whole wheat meal flour is high in fiber often used in recipes and cooked as swallow known as tuwon alkama is brownish in color, richer in nutrients thus healthier and tastier than other refined wheat products.

Recipe Ingredients
Semo powder

Recipe steps
On medium heat bring water to boil, when it is boiling then reduce heat. Stir in the semo into the simmering water, whisking in or turning quickly with a spatula to avoid lumps forming. Gradually add in the powder and turn anticlockwise until the boiling liquids begin to thicken.
Cover and To cook for some minutes on low heat; to achieve the desire thickness and smoothness add more powder and continue to turn quickly. When it is smooth and soft to choice, scrape all the edges of the pot to the middle mold and sprinkle water. Cover again and allow the steam to finish up the cooking, remove lid of pot and turn the SEMO mold until completely form.
Scoop and roll into balls in a small bowl, wrap it up with cellophane to avoid drying up and place in food warmers. Serve with most favorite soups as a staple meal.

Traditional Pasta Or Taliya
The making of pasta in northern Nigeria is a huge business that is mostly done by housewives with a minimal start up capital but of utmost importance is the pasta making machine which for many that can not afford the new one visit the second hand market to buy the fairly used machine to begins the pasta making business. The northeast relish a lot the traditional taliya and it is part cultural practices during wedding to accompany the new wife to her husbands house with several basins of the the taliya as a gift, and it is a must for such parents to present the taliya to their daughter during any notable event or ceremony. The taliya is just a traditional replica of noodles but is cheaper and easy seen all around the neighboring markets that are close by. It is a very light meal that is enjoy by the youngest and the oldest members of any family.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat meal or wheat flour
Groundnut oil

Pasta making machine
Raffia mats known as taburma
Large basins
Kitchen scissor
A small table and stool

Recipe Steps
Sift the flour into a large bowl, add some salt to taste, drizzle some groundnut oil and sprinkle over some water, begin by bringing the flour together into a crumbly dough, add more water and working on the dough.
Once a crumbly dough is made, begin to knead, knead and knead on the dough to make all the remaining flour blend and bind into the mixture to make a smooth dough.
Divide the dough into equal parts enough to pass through the pasta rolling machine.
Normally the pasta rolling machine is fix on the middle of a bench high enough that as soon as the machine is rolling out the pasta, a ready waiting hand collects it and quickly spread it out on the mat.
Pick each ball of roll out into long rectangular shapes; set the machine to the size of the pasta sheet to be made, pass it through repeatedly setting the number every time until the desire thinness of pasta sheet is made. Then feed the rolled out dough between the two rollers and roll to achieve the desired thinness, repeat until all the dough is made into a sheet.
Pick the top of the pasta sheet, hold it up and feed the bottom end into the cutting rollers of the pasta making machine, turning on its handle slowly while pushing in the pasta sheet, as it roll out stripes of pasta according to the number set for the pasta, then the pasta will come out on the other end perfectly cut.
Then place a hand to pick it quickly at the other end before falling off, then gently lay it on the mat or hang upon a long horizontally hung pole, plank or plastic to dry.
It takes just few minutes to dry and turn crispy, very fragile and breaks easily.
The pasta is then packaged into tiny transparent cellphone or nylon bags then tied at the opening and place in a large basin. Repeated until all dried pasta are package, it is sold to retailers in bulk who also sell to customers according to its demands. The taliya business in the northeast has been as old as the tradition of eating the taliya all over communities in Nigeria.

Homemade Doughnuts
The making of doughnut to serve at eateries a highly rewarding business, with many often requesting for the doughnuts to be serve at parties and gatherings or during important events. A lot of the Nigerian big restaurants are into the business of home deliveries when orders are made for the sweet and soft dough rings to be serve in the menu, especially during birthday parties where the doughnuts are presented as part of the birthday events during games, such dough nuts comes in colorful glaze with with dotting of beautiful tiny candies. Guest at such events love the sweet and fluffy snacks, enjoying it with drinks and beverages.

Recipe ingredients
Whole wheat or all purpose flour
Fresh eggs
Vanilla or cinnamon flavor or nutmeg
Vegetable oil

Recipe Steps
The doughnut are made as cake doughnut with cake recipe then baked while the yeasted doughnut are made with yeast then fried; all depends on personal choice.
Sift flour into a bowl, add salt and keep.
Proof the yeast in warm warm or milk.
Whisk the fresh eggs, add in the butter and sugar then whisk some more. Combine with the proofed yeast and milk, add in the vanilla or cinnamon flavor then beat all wet ingredients together until totally fluffy and frothy light.
Scoop and gradually add in the flour, beating in and adding some more until all ingredients are combined.
Transfer on to the kitchen work area, knead and knead until a soft and smooth dough is made.
Place in a greased glass bowl, brush some oil all over the dough. Cover the bowl, keep in a warm place undisturbed and allow to rise and double in size.
Roll out dough and cut into shape of dough with a dough cutter machine or use the manual cutter for faster and easier cutting which gives a perfect finishing to the doughnut shape.
Gather together all the cut out middle, knead and cut into doughnut or simply fry it off as done for puff puff.
Now cover the cut out doughnut with a kitchen towel and allow to rise for the second time to take on the ideal perfect doughnut shape.
On medium heat, place a deep sauce pan with enough vegetable oil for deep frying, add onion slices to give the frying oil delicious flavor and aroma.
Gently drop in the doughnuts and fry in batches, giving room for space between the doughnuts.
Fry both sides until golden brown, if the doughnuts do not flip over use a perforated spoon or kitchen tong and flip to fry the other side; after frying some doughnut come out beautiful with a lighter ring around the middle of the fried doughnuts.
Glaze with any glaze recipe of choice, mix cream, flavor and sugar syrup then whisk to combine; gradually add in powdered sugar and beat all together until smooth and reach a pouring consistency. Pick and dip doughnuts into the glaze until coated, place on baking rack until set. If prefer dust with flavored powdered sugar and decorate with colored sugar.
Store in the refrigerator after wrapping it up and heat to serve with juice, smoothies or beverages.

Homemade French Bread
The bread that many often called the French bread with gashes and slashes is specially made with wheat flour, yeast, salt and water, a chewy and savory tasty loaf. The bread unlike other bread is allow to ferment for longer, bake to crispy golden crust on the outside while making for a soft and chewy right in the inside, with an amazing texture and nutty flavor is divine having many lover of the French bread enjoying a complete by just serving with, honey, jam, butter or cheese and sprinkling of pepper, absolutely delicious with a hot bowl of soup.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat  or all purpose flour
Active dry or Instant yeast
Sugar is optional
Vegetable or olive oil
Warm water
Fresh egg wash or Ice cubes for instant steam to achieve a crispier bread crusts.

Recipe Steps
Proof the yeast in a small bowl, add the yeast into the warm water traditionally the French bread needs no sugar but if using add just a little sugar and mix together to combine; cover until it turns foamy on the top surface.
Sift the wheat flour into a large mixing bowl, add salt to taste then stir together to blend in well, next mix into the dry ingredients the proofed yeast until it forms a lumpy dough.
Transfer onto a clean work surface area, sprinkle some flour over the dough and knead, repeatedly add flour and knead until a smooth non sticky dough is made. Mold dough into a ball and rub olive oil all over then cover tightly with cellophane wrap, allow to rise in a warm place until double in size.
Punch down and knead again, cut the dough into equal size balls; then roll each dough balls into a rectangle.
To shape the bread, pick each long rectangle and roll horizontally into a log or cylinder shape, then turn inward both ends and pinch to seal up the seams, smoothen and round the edges, carefully place on the prepared baking sheet.
Repeat with the remaining dough balls, and place on the baking sheets leaving enough space for rising. Cover, allow to rise for an hour or more remember that the longer it stays the better its taste.
Gashes and slases on the french bread is achieved with a new kitchen razor blade or an extremely thin and sharp kitchen knife so that the freshly risen loaves does not deflate; cut gently three diagonal lines across the top of each loaf, follow up by brushing the top with freshly beaten eggs for more shine and crispiness.
Steam up the hot oven; open the oven doors and place the bread, just as quickly toss some ice cubes into the bottom part of the oven and close the door gently do not slam it shut. Bake the loaves in a preheated oven until the top crust is golden brown; brush the bread with melted butter, ghee or olive oil.
Serve hot with any side dishes of choice, delicious with baked beans or the Nigerian beans pottage, a delight with sauces and dunking in soup or gravy.
Store the loaves after cooling completely, wrapped up in foil wrap, loaves bag or cellophane bags in the refrigerator or freezer.

Famous Fortune Cookies
A cute and crispy shiny cookie folded into butterfly shape, uniquely made to create a pocket that holds a “fortune” written on a tiny paper. The fortune cookies originally are made with a mixture of flour, sugar, eggs and water, beaten to form a batter then pour out into the center of a 3″ circles, baked for 3 minutes while still warm and flexible, a fortune paper is place in the middle, using a chopstick it is quickly folded and molded into the familiar shapes of the fortune cookies; when the cookies completely cools, the sugar hardens into a crispy shiny fortune cookies.
A traditional Chinese and Japanese end of meal sweet treats with fortune quotes about life by Confucius a world famous Chinese philosopher while modern day fortune cookies contain quotes, phrases, advises, faces of smiley, funny messages, marriage proposals, advertisements, wishes and prayers for the receivers who are often either customers, partners, friends and families. Fortune cookies are a part of celebrations and events during birthdays, weddings, holidays and New year; a cherished and relished parts of Asian-American cuisine that has now filtered into Nigeria and other popular cultures all across the world.

Recipe Ingredients
All purpose flour
Corn starch or rice flour (Optional)
Sesame seeds (optional)
Fresh egg whites
Pinch of salt
Flavor of vanilla and almond or cinnamon
Melted butter or Vegetable oil

Recipe Steps
The paper strips is cut to fit into the cute cookies just about 3″ long and 1/5″ wide; write out “fortune” of choice on the paper then cut out the strips. Meanwhile, preheat the oven and lay out the silicone mat on the baking trays.
Crack open the fresh eggs and separate the egg whites from yolk into a mixing bowl, add in the sugar and whisk until frothy light. Next add flavors, melted butter or vegetable oil and water then quickly whisk or beat to combine and blend in thoroughly.
Sift the flour into another bowl, add the corn or rice flour (optional), salt to balance the taste. Mix the dry and wet ingredients together until smooth but if it is too thick, add little water and mix again to attain the right batter consistency.
FRYING:- On low heat place a non-stick pan or griddle and heat it up, Scoop and pour batter onto the heated griddle, quickly spread it out as thin as possible and close to 3″ across.
Cook until edges are crispy golden brown then flip over until both sides are golden brown.
BAKING:-Scoop and pour batter onto the prepared cookie sheets, giving enough space in between for spreading out, then tilt the baking tray back, forth and all around for an even circle shape.
Bake in the preheated oven until the edges turns golden brown; remove from the oven then quickly lift away the cookies with a spatula and flip it over, place in the middle of the cookies the fortune paper. Fold the cookie in half, carefully bring the two ends downwards over the rim of a glass or the lip of a teacup once the fortune cookie is crimped, place the shaped cookies into baking cups that best fits the shapes without springing back until completely cools, sets and shapes.
Continue until all batter is baked and all cookies are shaped, then package and present to friends and families of fortune.

Wheat meal Crunchy Cookies
A delicious, wholesome, chewy and digestive cookies that is not just a delight but also loaded with excellent plant fiber. Sweet crunchy feel from the crushed roasted groundnuts and an absolutely divine aroma from the naughty nut butter. A hit with the kids, much loved by the grownup as a satisfying brunch in between meal when there is so much work to be done and limited time space to go for a lunch.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat meal or wheat flour
Roasted groundnut or peanuts, skin it and crush roughly
Roasted groundnut paste or peanut butter
Butter or ghee known as mai shanu in Hausa
Sugar and salt
Fresh eggs
Full cream milk
Baking soda or powder
Flavor of vanilla, cinnamon or nutmeg
Ginger and cloves powder

Recipe steps
Cream the butter or ghee together with the creamy groundnut paste or peanut butter, add in sugar and cream all until fluffy light and well blended thoroughly.
Sift into a tray the wheat meal flour, add in the baking powder or soda, spices of the grounded ginger, cloves and nutmeg or the flavor of the vanilla and cinnamon.
Next, balance off the taste with just a pinch of salt.
Whisk fresh eggs in a different bowl until frothy, pour over the creamed sugar and nutty butter mix. Whisk all together to combine without visible lumpy curdles in the mix, for more richness and crispy cookies pour in some full cream milk. Beat the mixture with the whisk until color turns a shade lighter and mixture fluffier. Add in the crushed roasted peanuts and fold into the creaminess of buttery mixture.
Gradually, add in the flour and fold into the mixture; continue thus until all wheat meal is used up and a pliable dough is achieved.
Turn dough onto a floured work surface, roll gently and handle carefully. Cut out the dough with cookie cutters of any fancy designs or shapes.
Arranged on baking trays lined with non stick parchment papers or silicon baking ware, making out good space for spreading out during baking.
Bake in a preheated over until crispy on the edges with a beautiful golden brown color all over, as soon as a delicious aroma invites the nostril over to the oven doors then it is ready to be taken out of the hot oven.
Place on a baking rack and allow to cool.
Store in cookie jar or packs, label and serve as treat or make a batch extra and share with families and friends. Enjoy.

Flaky Chin Chin
The snack popularly called chin chin is always included into the menu of event and gathering all across the communities in Nigeria; chin chin is one of the easily accessible street food, fried and sold on the road side, while many housewives make the chin chin and package it to be hawk around places of large gatherings such as motor parks, schools, hospitals and market places. Chin chin can be deep fried or bake, which all depends on choice; it is a mixture of various flour depending on demand and supply but the most generally used is the wheat flour. Flaky chin chin is achieved by the use of pasta making machine to roll out the dough into paper thin and flat shapes just like pasta before dipping into hot oil to fry. A flaky and crunchy sweet gift for families and friends so make extra batches and present to visitors, a delightful treat for kids with fruit juices and sweets.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole wheat meal and or All purpose flour
Brown Sugar
Baking Powder
Butter or ghee know as mai shanu in Hausa
Fresh eggs
Milk powder or full cream milk
Cinnamon or nutmeg flavor
Vegetable oil for frying

Recipe Steps
Sift into a mixing bowl the wheat meal flour to incorporate more air, add salt, sugar, milk powder, and flavor, combine to blend in all the dry ingredients.
The more the butter, ghee or vegetable oil the more soften and crumbly the chin chin will turn out after baking or deep frying; drop into the flour the required dollop of the butter, ghee or cooking oil then use the rubbing in method to mix into crumbly texture.
Break eggs into a separate bowl, add the full cream milk and whisk then add into the flour mixture and mix in until a dough forms.
Transfer onto a kitchen work surface area and knead until smooth not stretchy into the desired thickness, this step in the chin chin making process determines its outcome of whether it is going to be hard and tough to chew or soft and crumbly but for the flat and paper thin flaky chin chin the dough must be soft to easily roll using the pasta making machine.
Cut the dough into equal ball, pick each ball and roll out into long rectangular shapes; set the machine to the size of the pasta sheet to be made, pass it through repeatedly setting the number every time until the desire thinness of pasta sheet is made. Then feed the rolled out dough between the two rollers and roll to achieve the desired thinness, repeat until all the dough is made into a sheet. Cut out into smaller shapes and sizes of choice with a pastry cutter, a sharp knife or simply drop into hot oil and deep fry until crispy golden brown or spread out on a baking tray and bake until golden brown and crunchy if using the oven.
The frying method is to place on medium heat a dry pot, pour into it cooking oil to heat up, drop into the hot oil onion slices to give the oil a delicious aroma thus giving the chin chin a nice taste.
Remove from oil with a perforated spoon and drain oil by transferring all fried chin chin into a perforated bowl lined with kitchen paper towel to drain excess oil. Serve with drinks of choice or store in airtight containers or jar to retain its crunchy texture.
Chew on the flaky and crunchy sweet delight, enjoy.

Nigerian Puff Puff Or Fried Dough Balls
The first breakfast meal snack on every street corner, all over the villages to city centers the Puff puff joint is always randomly decorated with a long queue of anxiously waiting customers in a hurry and hungry to be served the hot puff puff. Puff puff the yummy, with crispy covering and soft sweet favorite meal that is cherished by little kids all over communities in Nigeria, walking close by the puff puff joints are the kids crying out with a tug at their mom’s hand and voicing “mama, puff-puff”, looking on with pleading eyes all the while pointing their tiny fingers at the food vendor who is already busy frying puff puff, a busy business woman who is cocoon in the middle of hungry customers; she who is veiled in the smoky curtains of the firewood smokes not caring about the hazards but for the huge profits to be gain.
The most popularly relish snack by students, workers, laborers, market people, kids, adults and the aged, the one stop on the go food car teen that is ready to serve anyone according to money paid. The puff puff is just like the doughnut but with a difference in its round tiny ball shape and unlike doughnut, puff puff needs just a few ingredients to make. Serve in newspaper or polythene bags, with a sprinkling of the granulated sugar who enjoy the chewy snack as a sweet treat, the spicy puff puff is a favorite of many shying away from too much sweetness.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat meal or all purpose flour
Instant Dry Yeast
Salt and nutmeg or cinnamon
Warm water
Vegetable oil for frying
Spicy puff puff add-in chopped onions and grounded chili pepper.

Recipe Steps
Sweet puff puff mixture is to mix the yeast with warm water and sugar in a deep bowl, then cover and let it proof into a bubbling surface.
Sift the flour into the waiting dry mixing bowl to incorporate more air, remove hidden particles that might otherwise ruin the delight of enjoy a chewy and delicious snack. Add more sugar for sweet puff puff, the salt, nutmeg or cinnamon. While for the savory and spicy puff puff; wash, peel and finely chop or grate the onions. Scoop and add the chili pepper to fit into how spicy or hot the puff puff will be, add to the mixture just before frying.
Now pour over the dry ingredients the proofed yeast mixture, mix in quickly simultaneously beating the mixture until it is smooth and lump-free.
Cover the dough with an airtight lid or the cellophane wrap to trap in the heat and to prevent the air going in. Then place the dough in a warm place, traditionally it is place under the sun in most regions in Nigeria to allow for fast dough rising. The puff puff dough takes a long time to rise and double in size which most often depends on the weather, the mixture and the quality of yeast. As soon as the sweet scenting of a delicious bread aroma is oozing out to fill up the air all over, while at times the rising dough pushes open the cover, then it is ready for frying.
On medium heat place a large frying pan with lots of oil for deep frying, sizzle in it some onion slices. Now with a dessert spoon or an ice cream scoop, carefully scoop the puff puff mixture, roll it in the spoon for a few seconds, quickly dropping the puff balls into the hot oil. Do not crowd the hot oil with too many puff balls, always allow for enough space so the bouncing treats can dance around effortlessly to achieve an even doneness. Then continue to scoop into the hot oil the puff puff dough depending on the desired ball size. Fry the puff in small batches never allowing too much at a time this is to avoid soaking up on the frying oil.
Once the dough is floating above the oil and turns into a round ball with the base color a nice brown, quickly turn and fry the other side until a beautiful red to dark brown color shows up.
Scoop with a large perforated spoon the fried puff puff which is perfectly puffed up, holding over the hot oil to drain out excess frying oil, then turn it over onto the prepared absorbent kitchen paper towels or napkins to further absorb extra oil.
Transfer into a food warmer to keep hot or leave out to cool and serve with any beverages of choice.
Serve and enjoy, chop one, chop two, chop and chop… Yummy.

Tuwon Alkama Or Wheat Meal Swallow
The solid food mold is often made with the whole wheat meal, known as garin alkama in northern Nigeria. Cooked in boiling water until is thickens and turns into a mold, scoop and serve with vegetables soups but goes satisfyingly well with choice soups.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat meal or wheat flour

Recipe Steps
On low heat bring water to boil, reduce the heat and slowly little by little whisk in the wheat meal until it thickens a bit, cover and allow to boil severally.
Meanwhile not everyone can perfect the simple task of adding the wheat meal into a simmer or hot boiling water while simultaneously stirring to cook the swallow; not to worry because there is always a way out of any obstacles. It is called “Talge” in Hausa of northern Nigeria; so scoop some wheat meal flour into a small bowl, add a some water (not hot) and mix into a paste. Next gradually add the whole meal paste into the boil water, stirring while adding until every goes in. Turn and stir until it thickens, cover and allow to boil on just like is done on the step above.
The now simmering whole meal mixture must be cooked until it is a smooth and soft solid; add some more whole meal flour and continuously stir and turn anticlockwise until the desired thickness of solid is prepared. Sprinkle some water all over the solid food mold, cover again and cook on simmer.
Finally, dip in the turner or spatula and turn severally to get the right texture in its smoothness and softness; scrape the pot edges towards the middle mold and turn again until all is formed into a single smooth swallow.
Scoop into smaller molds, roll in a smaller bowls to make a perfect round swallow then wrap with cellophane to keep it from drying out. Transfer into food warmer and serve with any favorite soups or stews of choice.

Crispy Fried Pastry Or Dublan Flaky Snack
A crispy, flaky and sweet fried snack glazed with lemon sugar syrup, with a sprinkling of toasted sesame seeds for more crunchiness and aromatic taste; enjoyed every time of the day by young and old. Crunchy with every mouthful, sweet treat that is eaten endlessly as a light sweet treats. A traditional and wedding sweet treats that is finding its way into many families menu as an in-between meal brunch serve with drinks. A dozen bucket full of the dublan snack is made specially and gifted a new bride by her family to take along to her new home as a snack to welcome visitors coming to see her.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole wheat flour or all purpose flour
fresh eggs
baking powder
vegetable oil for frying
Glaze: sugar lemon juice water

Recipe Steps
Sieve the wheat or all purpose into a bowl, add baking powder and salt, combine. Add cooking oil of choice especially the fried groundnut oil with onions, add a little ghee or butter and mix into a crumb-like mixture. Whisk fresh eggs in a bowl and add to the flour, add water or milk and combine, once it is forming a mold; knead into a smooth pastry dough. Cover and allow to rest, then knead again and handle lightly to avoid pastry becoming hard dough.
Cut all dough into equal sizes and roll each into a ball, cover with a kitchen napkin.
On low heat place a sauce pan and pour in vegetable oil enough for frying the Dublan, to heat up add onion slices to sizzle up.
Meanwhile, pick each dough ball and roll out into a thin horizontal flatten pastry just the thickness of a pasta dough. Now bring the two ends together and seal by pressing. Then turn, fold and squeeze the flatten pastry to form the shape of a ruffled clothing materials. Drop into the heated frying oil, repeat until finish and fried into crispy golden brown. Do not allow to soak up oil, remove from oil immediately and place on paper napkin
To make sugar syrup in a saucepan pour in water and add sugar, then place on medium heat and cook until boiling, squeeze lemon juice and add to the sugar syrup boil until it is a thin thread forms when place between two fingers. Quickly remove from the heat, and dip each fried duplan in the syrup until completely coated, repeat for all duplan and sprinkle toasted sesame seeds.

Kunun Alkama Or Whole-Wheat Gruel
The gruel or pap is similar to the Nigerian akamu that is made with the corn flour or paste but the difference here is the use of wheat which has not been fermented. The wheat flour can be mix with rice or corn flour to make the wheat gruel for variety in taste, if using only the wheat flour it is advisable to add more nourishing food to serve with it, such as the bean cakes, fried or steamed. Great for weaning babies, perfect for the elderly and for the sick, a must delightful, completely nourishing meal.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat whole meal or flour
Groundnut milk, paste, or butter
Spices of choice like ginger, and clove powder including chili pepper
Sweetener of choice
Lemon or tamarind juice, milk or yogurt

Recipe Steps
Mix the groundnut paste or butter with water to make the groundnut milk; alternatively, peel and wash off the groundnut coverings to obtain the white groundnut pulse.
Transfer into a blender, pour in water and press on the blender, process until it is blended into a smooth creamy groundnut paste then add more water and blend again to dilute into a white groundnut milk.
Sieve to remove the fiber or residue of the groundnut milk then transfer into a deep saucepan, place on low heat and bring to boil, watching ever so carefully to avoid boiling over.
Sift the wheat meal flour into a bowl or if desire cooked whole to gain more fiber from the wheat bran; whilst milling the wheat either add in the spices of ginger, cloves and chili to grind all together or grind separately the wheat grains and the spices, to use simply scoop into the wheat meal or flour the needed spices and combine.
Meanwhile, in a dry bowl scoop in the spicy wheat meal flour, add water to mix into a smooth paste.
Check the boiling milk for doneness, once the raw groundnut taste is off the simmering milk, slowly pour in the dissolved wheat paste whilst stirring until the pap or gruel sets into a smooth gruel. Adjust with more water or wheat paste to the desire choice consistency.
Put off the heat, scoop into serving bowls, add milk, yogurt, tamarind or lemon juice then stir to combine; notice immediately the color and consistency changes. Sweeten according to taste with any sweetener of choice; serve with fried or steamed bean cakes.

Alkubus Or Steamed Bread Pudding
Alkubus is the name given to a steamed wheat meal dough, that is often serve with vegetable or pumpkin soup, the recipe of alkubus all depends on the ingredients added, while some recipe are just plain dough others include add-in such as carrots or vegetables for more nourishing and tasteful meal.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole meal wheat flour
Dry yeast
Salt for savory or sugar for sweet
Cubed carrots
Green pepper and onions
Baking tools or cups

Recipe Steps
The steamer just like the use of oven must be made ready; place on medium heat with enough water to cover the base.
Sieve into a bowl the flour and sprinkle a pinch of salt but if using sugar add to the warm water before mix in the yeast to prove.
Once the yeast forms bubbles on the surface, gradually pour into the center of the the wheat meal and mix into a batter.
Mix quickly to avoid lumps forming until it is a smooth batter, now add in the cubed carrots or green bell pepper and some chopped onions, fold into the batter by turning continuously until vegetables blend in well.
Scoop the mixture into oiled cups or baking pans, wrap up the pudding with a foil paper to prevent steams soaking it atop.
Carefully arrange in the steamer and cover to cook; check for doneness by inserting a fork or clean toothpick and once it comes out clean it is ready.
Put off heat, remove from steamed then allow to cool for few minutes before turning it out of the cups.
Serve with any soup, sauce or stew as a complete meal any time of the day.

Kunun Alkama Or Wheat Porridge Puddings
A wholesome breakfast meal, that is absolutely natural with no artificial additives and so high in fiber loads from the bran that is left unprocessed. The pudding can be fortified with yogurt, nono, fresh milk, tamarind water or lemon juice for added nutrients, flavor and taste. Garnishing can be made from any choice fruits such as apple for crunchiness, banana for a subtle creamy sweetness, strawberry for more beautiful color to lure the unwilling appetite to dive in spoonful after spoonful for a fulfilling super delight to brighten the start of the day, that keeps on holding on to the stomach enzymes for longer until the end of the day or when the next meal is available. A delicious pudding that is enjoyed by the whole family and great for diabetic patients if prepared with healthy choice ingredients such as organic honey for sweetener.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat Grains
Wheat whole-meal or flour
Ginger, cloves and chili powder optional
Full cream milk, fresh milk, yogurt, tamarind or lemon juice
Fruits and sweetener of choice but best of all is the honey.

Recipe Steps
On low heat place a deep saucepan, pour in water and slowly bring to boil.
Wash some wholesome wheat grains until it is freed of tiny stone grits and particles, then slowly drain out all water and pour into the now boil water.
Cook the wheat grains just as for cooking white rice, until it is bloated, soften and becomes mushy.
Check the cooked grain for doneness by pressing between the fingers, if it becomes mushy then it is ready for the next step.
Scoop some wheat whole-meal flour into a small, add water to mix until a smooth paste and pouring consistency. Gradually and quickly, add to the simmering wheat grains, stirring with every addition until it thickens to the desired porridge pudding texture.
Remove from heat, sweeten and fortify with milk, yogurt or lemon juice.
Mix to combine well, then garnish with fruits of choice to balance up the breakfast cereal as a complete meal.
Serve hot as breakfast meal or chilled and serve as for dessert.

Alkaki Or Wheat Grit Treat
Alkaki is a sweet and chewy snack treats, made with the wheat grit or the coarsely or roughly milled wheat grains. Wheat grit is used in a lot of traditional cuisines for its chewy and satisfyingly wholesome attributes. The wheat grits is used in preparing dambun tsaki for the Hausa regions while the prestigious Brabisco dish enjoyed by the Kanuri of the northeast Nigeria, it is a perfect alternative to the various commercialized packaged breakfast cereals which are often so expensive and out of the poor peoples reach only for the rich to enjoy in breakfast meals. The wheat grits all over northern Nigeria is used for making the popular fura that is served with yogurt known as nono in Hausa. A sweet wheat treats made for special events or celebration is the alkaki, a fried wheat grits dough that is eventually soaked in sweet syrup of any sweetener of choice ranging from sugar molasses, syrup or honey. A little wheat grits that is specially cooked goes a long way in satisfying hunger pangs and keeps binge eating at bay.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole wheat Grits
Whole wheat meal
Fresh milk or full cream milk
Ghee or mai shanu in Hausa
Pinch of salt
Soak potash to obtain water
Groundnut oil for frying
Alkaki Syrup: Mix of Sugar, water, tamarind or lemon juice

Recipe Steps
The quantity of wheat grits to the wheat flour is 2 to 1, meaning the wheat grits doubles the quantity of wheat flour used in the recipe of alkaki.
First step to begin is to measure the right quantity of wheat grits into the mixing bowl then add in the right quantity of wheat flour as stated above and add salt to taste.
Stir the wheat grits and flour to blend together, next make a hollow well in the middle. Pour in the fresh milk or full cream milk, drop in enough butter dollop or lumps and add in some ghee known in Hausa as mai shanu.
Mix and knead until it forms a crumbly dough, here is the trick sprinkle little water over the wheat dough just enough to bring together the dough into a hard dough mass.
Cover tightly and leave undisturbed in a warm place to rise overnight, thereby softening.
Meanwhile, soak potash in some water and strain or sieve the cloudy solution leaving out the sandy residues.
Achieving the perfect texture of the alkaki snack dough requires lot of pounding hard and kneading; in a clean dry mortar transfer the wheat dough then sprinkle some of the soaked potash water, and pound until all is absorbed, repeat the sprinkling of potash water and pounding until all the potash water is used up and the dough is fluffy light while making for the desire dough texture is achieved.
Check the dough; as soon as the dough can be roll into a long rope-like shape without cracking or breaking it is all ready and done. Transfer into a mixing bowl and knead on a work surface.
Sugar syrup or honey for glazing, the use of honey is advisable for healthy choices and for people with health issues; the sugar syrup is cheaper for use in making large quantities for street food snacks or for special events such as weddings. Pour water into a saucepan, add in the sugar then drop in some tamarind or add soak tamarind juice or lemon juice just to give the glazing a blend of the sour and the sweet taste. Boil until the syrup is reduced in quantity and begins to change to a light golden, test the syrup between the thumb and forefinger if it forms a string then it is ready while many recipe prefer the syrup to turn golden brown which still boils turn to taste, color and flavor preference. Remove from heat and place the syrup close for glazing.
Traditionally the Shape of the alkaki dough is a twisted number “8” but again the shape can be made as to personal choices.
On low heat place a deep saucepan for frying the snack, pour in enough cooking oil and heat up, add some onion slices and sizzle until crispy golden brown.
Knead the rested dough, roll out to desire thickness and cut into vertical long stripes. Roll each stripe into a long rope like shape twist in an 8 number shape but instead of pressing the two ends together, pass one end through the bottom hole of the 8 then bring down the other end and press together in the middle of the hole to form a twisted ropelike number 8 shape.
Drop into the hot oil and fry slowly on low heat to allow the middle to be cooked also while the back remains crispy.
Fry until golden brown, remove from the hot oil with a perforated spoon and drop in to the sugar syrup while still hot to absorb easily the sugar syrup.
Repeat the process until all the dough is fried and glazed in the sugar syrup.
Carefully remove from the sugar syrup into an airtight container or bowl and cover.
Store in the refrigerator to last for several months and enjoy as a wholesome sweet treats.

Wainar Fulawa Da Kwai Or Locally Fried Savory Pancakes
A spicy and savory pancakes made locally and served homes or sold as street good, enjoyed as a complete meal by many, invitingly colorful, light and rich in nutrients. A rewarding business food joints for young graduates and the uneducated, helping millions as a cheap and delicious meal in northern Nigeria.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat flour
Fresh eggs
Green bell pepper or shredded spinach
Purple onions
Fresh tomatoes
Scotch bonnet
Seasoning cubes
Ginger powder
Salt to taste
Palm oil or vegetable oil for frying
Mixed native Spices or yaji
Garnish of shredded Cabbage or sliced cucumbers

Recipe Steps
Hygiene is crucial in meal preparation, wash all vegetables thoroughly, de-seed and chop or shred into tiny bits into separate bowls.
Meanwhile, sieve the wheat flour into a mixing bowl, add a little baking powder and salt then combine all the dry ingredients very well.
On low heat place a frying pan, pour in some groundnut or palm oil to heat up but not smoky, add in onion slices to sizzle until crispy golden brown.
Break fresh eggs into a deep bowl, then add in crushed seasoning cubes, spices and mix to blend.
Gradually add in the sieved flour into the beaten savory egg, then beat or whisk until fluffy light, check for seasonings and adjust accordingly.
Next is to add into the flour batter the differently chopped and shredded vegetables according to colors or varieties, fold into the batter to coat.
On the low heat remove the frying pan when a delicious aroma of the onions rend the air.
The frying is done in a clean non stick frying pan that is placed on the low heat, scoop just a little of the fried cooking oil in the frying pan and lightly grease the non stick pan.
Scoop the savory pancakes batter and pour in, quickly tilt the pan to all sides to coat the base of the non stick pan evenly.
Frying until air bubbles appears and the edges is set, flip over and fry both sides until set and cook.
Serve with garnishing of choice, sauce or stew.

Nigerian Meat Pie Or Short crust Pastry
A buttery short crust pastry filled with juicy moist stir fry mince meat and then baked or fried depending on choice. A super snack making for a great wholesome far away from what it is originally made for as a handy snack meal; a favorite street snack all over Nigeria and affordable depending on its fillings also moving on to grace the plates of guest during events and festive feasting.

Recipe Ingredients
All purpose flour
Mince meat or flaky fish
Fresh egg
Seasoning cubes and salt
Spices of thymes and curry
Fillings which includes cooked and Cubed potatoes
Chopped onions
Diced carrots
Vegetable oil

Recipe Steps
Sift flour into a mixing bowl, add baking powder, pinch of salt and sprinkles of sugar to balance up the pastry. Drop into the dry ingredients a dollop of butter then combine all by mixing in using the rubbing in method until a crumbly texture to achieve a soft and smooth dough follow up by adding milk or water.
Place in the refrigerator to cool before baking in order to form flaky layer after baking.
On low heat place a saucepan add just a little cooking oil to it, add chopped onions and sauté onions until soft.
Add mince meat, crushed seasoning cubes and spices of choice for that meat pies delicious taste, stir fry until the red color of raw meat changes to brown and the meat is cooked.
Meanwhile, wash potatoes and carrots, place in a pot of water, add salt and parboil not soft cooked. Then remove from heat, place in water, peel and dice then add in boiled carrots and potato to the mincemeat, stir all together.
A lot of meat pie recipes enjoy the juice fillings as against the too dry fillings; for juice filling mix flour some with milk or water and add to stir fry mincemeat to thicken into meaty gravy.
Transfer pastry dough out of the refrigerator unto a flour dusted kitchen work area, roll dough into the desire thickness and cut out circles with meat pie cutter.
Fill one side of each round circle of pastry with mincemeat stir fry, moisten all round edges with the mixture of flour and water, gently fold over fillings and press edges tightly, press with a fork for the beautiful meat pies trademark design; top it up by a few fork prick at the top of each meat pies to give room for steam escape while baking or frying.
The egg wash follows with a kitchen brush dip in beaten eggs, rub all over each pie.
Arrange on baking tray lined with parchment paper then bake in a preheated oven until golden brown.
Serve any time of day with beverages of choice. Enjoy the flaky and crumbly chewy meat pies, so yummy.

Sausage Rolls
All over the world the sausage roll snacks has been given different names, for Nigeria it is popularly known as Gala and generally loved by many all over the Nation. Gala is sold in retail outlets and eateries, also hawked mostly along high ways during traffic in Lagos; “Buy gala, buy gala” is a popular anthem that invites people to buy the snack for a meal or to take away as gifts for families and friends. The gala is so popular that any traveler to or from Lagos is asked first for the gala snack. Although, the gala recipes which is simply a branded sausage roll is known by many snack vendors; it is made with short crust pastry or pastry dough, stuffed with meat or sausage stir fry, then roll and baked. It is packaged in the transparent cellophane tiny bags labeled and sold, hence it is now made and sold not with the name gala but with the names of the bakers all across communities in Nigeria. Homemade sausage rolls are tastier and healthier, for that simple reason that only the best of ingredients are used and no artificial or unhealthy additives.

Recipe ingredients
Minced Sausage, Chicken, Beef
Chopped onions
Fresh eggs
Short crust pastry or wheat flour, butter, salt, baking powder, and water
Spices of choice and Seasonings
Vegetable oil

Recipe Steps
On low heat place a non stick frying pan, drizzle just a little vegetable oil, add onions and sauté until translucent. Add in the minced meat, seasonings and sprinkle in the spices, then stir fry until the meat is done.
In a mixing bowl sift the flour, add salt and baking powder, stir to mix in. Drop in dollops of butter or margarine into the sift flour; using the rubbing in method mix together to blend in until it forms a crumbly texture.
Intermittently add sprinklings of water and knead gradually until a soft and smooth dough.
Roll out and cut dough into the desired thickness, cut into square or rectangular shapes using a sharp knife or pastry cutter.
Scoop and place the fillings on the tail ends of the pastry cut out; roll all the way to the other end of the pastry, moisten edges and seal up. Repeat the process until all dough and fillings are used up.
Meanwhile, preheat the oven, next arrange sausage roll on prepared baking trays, and brush the sausage rolls with beaten eggs to give that shiny golden brown finishing. Baked until edges of the rolls are crispy and top is golden brown.

Wheat Meal Grits Or Brabisco Alkama
Dry milling wheat into flour or grits; The dried wheat are processed by de-husking to remove bran or left with its bran which is known as whole-wheat meal; washed, dried and then to dry milling into grit or groat used for preparing the popularly called “Barbisco” in Borno State Nigeria and the generally known as “Tsaki” all across northern Nigeria.
The tsaki is a coarse loosely grounded whole-meal corn, popularly included in daily meal all over the northern and other parts of Nigeria, often refer to as the “local couscous”, highly nutritious because it is well processed whole-meal homemade grits, so filling due to its fiber contents derived from the un-hulled corn kernels, chewy and a delightful meal, perfect with sauces, stews or vegetable soups.

Recipe Ingredients
Dried whole-wheat grains

Recipe Steps
Measure out the required quantity, spread out the wheat, pick out stones and thoroughly pass through a sieve or fan up and down with raffia round mat called feifei to remove dirt and debris.
Then severally rinse in running water the wheat grains to remove dust, dirt and remaining residues but do not allow to soak while washing.
Drain water, spread on a mat to sun dry; check to see there are no moist grain, collect into a bowl.
Spread out, air dry or sun dry then transfer into a large dish, and take to the heavy duty commercial grinding machine, and ground or mill into wheat grits known as brabisco or tsakin alkama in Hausa, by requesting for just the coarse grinding that it must not be smooth flour but a couscous-like or “brabisco” grinding method.
The wheat grits after grinding is warm, do not store covered immediately, allow to air and cool.
Sieve out the fine wheat flour out of the wheat grits and use for other recipes.
Scoop out and transfer the wheat grits, brabisco or tsaki into a container.
Cover with lid and keep in a cool dry place.

Wheat Meal Flour Or Fulawan Alkama
The wheat flour is generally used for making the staple swallow for tuwo or oka, scoop and molded into desire shapes and sizes; serve with soup of choice.

Recipe Ingredients
Dried wheat grains wholesome or de-husked wheat grains

Recipe Steps
Measure out the required quantity, then rinse in running water the wheat grains to remove dirt and dust but do not soak.
Spread out, sun dry until free of wetness; then transfer into a large dish, and take to the heavy duty commercial grinding machine, requesting for a smooth grinding into a free flowing flour by requesting for “laushi” grinding method at the commercial engine, which is achieved by repeatedly milling the wheat grains until really fine and free-flowing.
Sieve and keep for use in various recipes that requires wheat flour or use as half/half with cassava or other cereal flours that can blend in perfectly; a great addition in making wheat bread, pancakes, pastries and snacks.

Wheat Germ Oil
Wheat germ oil extraction is the making of oil from wheat kernel, the wheat germ is the heart of the wheat grain which is enclosed in its very core; the germ buds of wheat grain is the fatty parts which is obtain after process flour and bran. The oil is a golden precious liquid just as melted gold with the refined germ oil having a yellowish color, the oil has the wheat taste with a mild aroma and flavor of herbs and pepper. The oil has the highest Vitamin E loads above all other oil, containing also the richness of Alpha-Tocopherol from its Vitamin E; wheat germ oil has healthy benefits if added to daily diet with its high loads of nutrients, and unsaturated fatty acids, can also provides beauty benefits with its high vitamin E loads. The best method to apply in the oil extraction is cold press because the wheat germ oil is sensitive to heat and oxygen; the germ oil has a good shelf life when stored in a cool and dark place.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat kernels as much quantity as the oil to be extracted
Wheat germ oil extraction press
Air tight bottle or jar

Recipe Steps
Wheat germ oil extraction is done in a hygienic environment with clean equipment and tools to avoid bacteria contamination which can cause more harm than good. The wheat germ oil is just a tiny percentage, just about 2% of the wheat kernel after the oil extraction.
Extracting the oil:- Feed the wheat kernels into the feeder at the top of the press, then place under the nozzle the jar or bottle in which the oil will be collected.
Follow the manual instructions, run the press, watch and wait until the wheat kernels has all its oil extracted, check the kernel for the dry feel to the touch. Collect and transfer the extracted oil into an airtight bottle or jar; disengage to remove the wheat kernel hulls then clean the press before next oil extraction.
Wheat germ oil is best used as a healthy alternative to other oils as dressings in various salad recipes, as drizzle over roasted vegetables, added to marinades, smoothies or as drizzle on garnishing, cooked dishes and meals of choice just before serving; for optimal healthy benefits, it is advisable not to heat wheat germ oil as it is heat-sensitive.

Whole Wheat Samosa
Samosa originated from India and Asia moving around fast all across the world as a delicious and delightful finger food snacks that is made mostly with vegetable stuffing of stir fry vegetables and plant protein of choice; spiced up with mixed spices, roll in paper thin wraps in several fold, baked or deep-fried until crispy golden brown and then serve with gravy of choice. A long list of pastry snack outlets or joint have also the samosa on its menu for those desiring a light snack meal with fruit drinks. The samosa wrap is where all the work begins and ends because it’s the uniqueness that gives the samosa snack pastry a desirable position among the millions of snacks available worldwide. The cute deep fried spicy and savory snack is a fantastic appetizers for parties and events, it is either baked or deep fried with vegetable or meat fillings; Samosa is a now popular Nigerian small chop or finger snacks serve in eateries and major food outlets, sold and hawk as street snack all across Nigeria. 

Recipe Ingredients
Minced meat, chicken, or chopped prawn; alternatively cooked Irish potatoes and vegetables
Sweet frozen peas
Salt and seasoning cubes
Mixed spices of suya or a mix of curry, thyme, chili, garlic, ginger and onions powder for the mixed spices
Chopped onions
Vegetable or Cooking oil

The paper thin dough
Wheat meal or all purpose flour or pilo dough
Groundnut, ghee or cooking oil
Warm water

Recipe Steps
Mix the flour and the dough ingredients together then add water to form a stiff but smooth dough, cover and allow to rest.
Meanwhile put on low heat a frying pan add oil and sizzle the chopped onions, add the mixed grounded spices. Sauté by stir-frying, add minced meat, chicken or prawn, seasoning and salt to taste, stir fry until the meat is cooked. Mash the cooked potatoes and add, remove prawns if using and chop then return to pan, add the gloriously green peas, stir all to combine; keep it off the heat.
Cut the dough into small cubes, feed into the rollers of a pasta making machine to roll out a paper thin samosa wrap, cut into a long rectangle and fold the tail end into a triangle; stuff it up, moisten edges then wrap the long end at top severally around the triangle until it is used up. Or cut a circle and form a cone shape then fill up with stuffing, moisten edges and seal it up.
Bake in preheated oven or deep fry in hot vegetable oil until crispy golden brown.
Serve with gravy, sauce or soup with lemon and cucumber slices as garnish.

Whole Wheat Pancakes
A delicious thick and fluffy high deck yummy pancakes, gluten free as best as it can be and often mix just as recipe for cake mixture but many recipes of the pancakes are made with all purpose flour, using the whole meal flour is a healthier alternative. The richer the ingredients used for the pancakes the more fluffy and sweet.

Recipe Ingredients
Whole wheat flour
Full cream or fresh milk alternatively creamy yogurt
Fresh eggs
Baking powder
Sugarcane syrup or honey to serve

Recipe Steps
Crack open the fresh eggs and whisk, pour in the milk or yogurt and whisk to a frothy mixture, keep by the side. Meanwhile, place butter on hot water to melt or cream the butter to reach room temperature or until light, pick over the milk and egg mix, add into the creamed butter gradually until used up.
Sift wheat flour into the mixing bowl, add baking powder, salt and sugar but if serving with sugarcane syrup or honey then skip the addition of sugar.
Combine the wet and dry ingredients, adding the wheat flour into the liquid, little by little to make for a pancake batter that is thick enough to produce a high pancake when fried. Handle mixture quickly but lightly to avoid developing gluten; never over mix batter it is ok with some lumps.
On low heat place a non stick frying pan or griddle allow to heat up. Scoop spoonful of the pancake batter using the dessert or ice cream scoop, carefully pour on the pan or griddle, leaving space enough for spreading. Once the surface sets and shows bubble holes on top, and the base is golden brown then flip over and cook.
Arrange on top of each pancakes and drizzle any syrup of choice preferably the cane sugar syrup or honey for healthier and fluffier sweet delights.

Rainbow Pancakes
A fluffy and colorfully made pancakes with lots of multicolored food coloring, sandwiched together with cream or chocolate, a beautiful display of sweet deliciousness that can be made into birthday cake or serve with birthday cake.

Recipe Ingredients
Sugar syrup or honey
Chocolate to sandwich the pancakes in place
Food colorings of yellow, orange, green, red, blue, pink and purple.

Recipe Steps
Divide the pancakes batter into portions of the food colorings; add few drops to each batter and mix to achieve the color of choice.
On low heat, place a nonstick frying pan or griddle grease lightly, and pour the pancake batter of the different coloring separately but in the same griddle with all colors fry at the same time.
Flip and fry the other side, remove and place on a serving plate by arranging the fried pancakes according to the rainbow colors; spread melted chocolate on top before placing each pancake into to keep all sandwich together.
Birthday cake
The pancakes are much more bigger, taking up all space in the frying pan, and it is fried according to the colored batter, each at a time. Then proceed as for birthday cake by decorating the birthday cake with chocolate frosting, allow a little frosting to come out and swoop down; follow it up by adding piped dollops along the entire top edge and bottom edge of the birthday cake.

Whole Wheat Cake
Richer, better, tastier and healthier for it is free of refined sugar and full of fiber. The perfect cake mix for a crunchy and crumbly soft cake, that is lightly sweet, a satisfying snack any time of day, great for breakfast and perfect with fruity smoothies.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat meal or wheat flour
Butter or ghee and olive oil
Milk or yogurt
Fresh eggs
Sugarcane Mazarkwaila, Brown sugar or honey
Salt, baking powder
Crushed roasted peanuts for crunchy cakes.
Flavor cinnamon and nutmeg or vanilla

Recipe Steps
Sift wheat flour into a bowl, add salt, baking powder or baking soda, stir together to combine.
Cream together the butter or ghee with the brown sugar, add more olive oil to taste.
Whisk fresh eggs separately until fluffy frothy, mix in the full cream milk, flavor up with vanilla, or if desire add in cinnamon and nutmeg. Quickly add to the creamed butter and sugar into a creamy smooth mixture.
Meanwhile preheat the oven, grease the cake pans or line with the non stick parchment paper and dust all over with flour.
Combine the wet and dry ingredients, scoop spoonful of the flour into the wet ingredients, folding in to mix without forming lumps, repeat the process until all the dry and wet ingredients are thoroughly combine and blended together into a smooth even colored cake batter, lastly fold in the crushed roasted peanuts which is optional.
Scoop into the prepared cake pan, with a knife smoothen the top by levelling the surface, then hit pan gently on the work area to remove excess air bubbles.
Careful place into the oven and bake until a toothpick inserted in the middle comes out clean, with golden brown color and a delicious sweet steam from the oven gently steals away the fresh air replacing it with an irresistible invites of “come and take a bite” aroma and flavor.
All done, remove from the hot oven and cool on the table top for just a few minutes then turn out the cake from the baking pans.
Wrap up with plastic bags or cake packs and store in the refrigerator. Always ready for a slice anytime any day, slide out, warm in the oven or microwave and enjoy with any favorite drinks or beverages.

Homemade Pizza
The snack meal that is world favorite, prepared to choices ingredients and taste preference. A soft dough with a spread of sauce, vegetable, fruits and meat and the yummy addition of cheese. While many recipe whisk fresh eggs and pour all over. A chewy snack just like the northern Nigeria wainar kwai da fulawa.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat flour or All purpose flour
Corn meal
Instant yeast
Vegetable oil

Mixed spices
Tomato sauce
Chopped onions and garlic
Brown sugar or honey
Seasoning cubes and salt
Fresh eggs
Pineapple slices
Beef or sausages

Recipe Steps
Mix yeast into warm water, add sugar allow to prove, drizzle some vegetable oil in and mix.
Sift the flour then season with salt, introduce gradually into the proofed yeast mixture until all flour is used up. Transfer on to the work area and knead until soft and smooth. Mold the dough into a ball and rub all over with some oil, wrap it up for an hour or more to rise and double in size.
Meanwhile, make the toppings by mixing together the tomato sauce, seasonings and spices then sweeten with the addition of the brown sugar.
Deflate the dough air, by punching it dough then cut into equal size; flatten the cut dough or roll into an even circular shape. Sprinkle the corn meal on pizza pan to prevent the dough from sticking to pan; lift the dough and gently place into a pizza pan for oven bake or non stick frying pan for stove top; push to fit in properly, then press dough edges out and decorate into lace design.
Brush the fitted in dough with olive or vegetable oil, next spread the tomato sauce as its base, next sprinkle cheese all over. Arrange all the toppings of choice alternating the meat, the pineapple and tomatoes slices, then sprinkle all over toppings the chopped onions and garlic.
Lastly, whisk fresh eggs and pour all over the dough toppings; On low heat place the pizza pan, cover and cook until cheese is melted and egg is set but if using the oven, then transfer the pizza pan into the preheated oven and cook until the dough turns into a beautiful crispy golden crust. Slice into triangles and serve with favorite drinks.

Homemade Creamy Crackers
The crunchy and savory biscuits are often have a flaky layer surface and it is made with wheat flour or oat meals mix with yeast which all depends on choice; it is flat and dry that makes a cracking sound when it breaks or it is crushed. Serve with savory toppings such as cheese, but it can also be enjoyed with butter or jam and enjoyed with tea. Crushed to make desserts in a variety of sweet treats such as pies and puddings or soaked in milk to enjoy as a yummy delight.

Recipe Ingredients
Wheat Flour
Butter or olive oil
Heavy cream
Add-in of chili pepper, garlic, sesame seeds, or salt for sprinkling is all optional and can easily by combine with the dough instead of sprinkling all over the crackers.

Recipe Steps
The first step in most baking recipes is to preheat the oven in order to achieve and attain the perfect temperature for the baking; then line a baking sheet with parchment paper or silicone mat, if not available then dust lightly with flour.
Sift flour into a mixing bowl, add sugar if using but some cracker mix do not require the addition of sugar, add in the salt just to taste of the crackers of choice in order to avoid too much sodium.
Stir and combine all the dry ingredients, add in the cheese and butter; rub into the flour and then bind all together with the addition of cream, gradually adding in and mixing in to make for a crumbly dough.
Transfer the dough onto a work surface area and knead until smooth, roll out to the thickness of choice to achieve the crackers with the cracking sound of choice going in between 1/2″ or even thinner than that.
Cut out shapes and designs of choice with pizza cutters, pastry wheel or a sharp knife; arranged all on a prepared cookie sheet, using a fork prick the surface of the cut out crackers, sprinkle with toppings of choice if using.
Bake in a preheated oven, flip and turn over the crackers half way through baking to bake both sides evenly, until a golden and crispy on the edges with golden brown spots all over the surface.
Ready and done, remove from the oven and place on a cooling rack.
Carefully store in airtight containers, cookies jar or bags until needed; avoid exposure to air and moisture to avoid the crackers losing out on its crispiness and going soggy.
Crackers are filling as a meal giving satiate fast and lasting for long, thus a great source of energy. Crackers are free of artificial additives such as flavorings, colorings and preservatives; always balance up the sodium and sugar contents with other side dishes. It is low in calories considering the few ingredients used and it is loaded with the Vitamin B and a rich source of dietary fiber.

Health Benefits Of Wheat
The nutritional value and benefits of wheat depends on the type of wheat being consumed and how it is cooked before consuming it in meals. Wheat is rich in nutrients such as Vitamin E, Vitamin B, calcium, potassium, magnesium, Copper, zinc, manganese, Sulphur, silicon, mineral salt and many other healthy benefits .
Wheat is a rich source of excellent dietary fiber, manganese and magnesium. Daily consumption of whole wheat products aids in controlling over weight helping greatly in weight loss. While the wheat insoluble fiber assist for a smoother digestion, with the need for less bile acids secretion hence preventing incidences of gallstones. Thereby resulting to less acid bile secretion and enzymes in the stool that can greatly prevent colon cancer hence improve gastrointestinal health.
Wheat is a source of Betaine that assist in reducing and controlling chronic inflammation, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease.
The consumption of whole wheat grains in daily diets assist in improving overall digestion, for better metabolism that helps to prevent high triglycerides, high blood pressure and the risk of heart diseases.
The bran and the Lignans loads in  wheat helps to check and control the estrogen levels which prevent breast cancer.
The high load of magnesium in wheat can help reverse the type two diabetes; thus the daily consumption of whole wheat aids in the control of blood sugar.

Adverse Effects Of Wheat
The side effects and allergies of wheat consumption are just few of the many hindrances preventing many individuals from the consumption of the wheat cereal and by products.
Gluten is a protein that is naturally found in wheat grains, barley, rye, durum, semolina and wheat berries; it is a gluten that keeps dough together as a binder without easily ripping apart, giving that stretchy quality. Gluten as a pre-biotic may help feed the good bacteria in the body of some individuals while some individuals immune cells may react differently to the wheat gluten and attack it thinking it is a toxin; consequently resulting into inflammation with the following side effects of fatigue, bloating, constipation, diarrhea to very severe cases of weight loss, malnutrition and intestinal damage as seen celiac disease individual’s gluten found in all wheat types can be harmful to individuals suffering from damage to the small intestine that affects nutrients absorption which is known as celiac disease. Wheat allergy may include swellings of the throat, itching eyes, itchy skin rashes and shortness of breath; wheat contain oxalates and when it is high in the blood may lead to some health issues such as gout, gallstones and kidney stones.
People who are sensitive to gluten must avoid it from their diets; It is advisable for individuals or patients who are allergic to wheat to avoid its consumption in any form because it can aggravate the existing health issues or lead to rashes, itching, eczema, and hives; but for those who can tolerate especially the whole wheat fiber rich products, moderate consumption along with other nutrients dense food is advised for improve digestion, colon cancer prevention and overall gut health. Wheat is whole grain with loads of improved health benefits; wheat is high in the gluten hence the gluten is only a problem for the few who react negatively while many individuals were known to have eaten and live their lives without any adverse effects.

Wheat Bio Fuel
Agricultural waste are used to produce biofuels; it is ecofriendly, nontoxic and completely combustible with great potential to replace the use of fossil fuels which is a major contributor to environmental pollution. The wheat bran, straw, husk, leaves are processed and converted into biofuels as green alternative; a substitute to petroleum.
Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from plant residues generally known as biomass; ethanol is an alcohol used as blending agent mix with gasoline. The fermentation method is used in converting the biomass into ethanol by developing bacteria yeast in plant sugar to produce ethanol; further processing involves breaking down the tough plant cell wall with extreme heat and pressure to break down solid biomass into liquid while enzymes or chemicals are used also to breakdown feedstock into simple sugar. The biological or chemical processing further converts the crudes recovered such as bio-oils, gas and sugar to produce a finished product known as the bio-products or biofuels, the green alternative to petroleum products.
Biofuel are environmentally sustainable as clean fuel that is extracted from animal and plant waste; ethanol is a renewable biofuel, liquid in nature making for a clear, colorless alcohol that is produced from plants biomass such as food grains with high starch and sugar loads as found in feedstock like sugarcane, corn, wheat, rice straw, and wood residues.
The wheat is harvested, taken to the mill to be processed into wheat byproducts, subsequently the starch from the wheat waste is further processed through fermentation then distilled into ethanol; thereafter, ethanol is mix with fuel and used in cars and engines as biofuels.
Nigeria as one of the highest petroleum oil producing nation of the world, can diversify the petroleum sector by looking into green alternative biofuels in the face of volatility in oil pricing, fuel security and the development of rural economies by investing in wheat production and processing which will make the locally cultivated wheat crop available and abundant not only as food to feed the nation but as a way to reduce dependence on petroleum for transportation fuels and also contribute towards reducing green house gas (GHG) emissions; thus, helping greatly to solve the controversial petrol subsidy removal in Nigeria.

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals
Achieving the sustainable development goals through wheat cultivation and production:- The wheat grain a priceless food crop and a major or minor staple food, depending on how the wheat grain is processed, used and incorporated into food products based on regional recipes of nations across the world. Food production and security is related to all of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that will aid in quickly achieving all the goals because to achieve anything in life food security is vital.

Goal 1* No Poverty
The wheat production, as a part of an all inclusive agriculture for all people will create jobs that will assist a lot of the Nigerian families to feed their families with nutritious food; assist also families that where rendered homeless due to the insecurity prevailing in almost all parts of the Nigerian communities. The small holder farmers will also have an opportunity to reclaimed their social status in the community by engaging in their ancestral heritage which is an inherited occupation known as farming. Wheat cereals is an essential and expensive crop needed for various dishes to feed the families and to use in the various food businesses; it will go a long way in alleviating poverty in rural communities and improve on the livelihood of the urban poor. The Nigerian women are daily involved in the food business of frying puff puff, Gurasa, baking, frying and supplying assorted snacks during weekends for events such as weddings and parties, such women are known to use up, several bags of wheat flour on daily basis which when demands are high used a minimum of five bags each day whilst employing other women and youth to help out meet demands; these young adults and women live on wages generated to take care of their daily essential needs and to live a decent life. All over Nigeria are bakeries for bread making businesses, demanding the use of the wheat grain that is in short supply due to low wheat cultivation in Nigeria; the wheat production industry will surely provide job for many Nigerian who lack skills, also for the many individuals who can not engage in entrepreneurial venture due to lack of start up capital, poverty will be a thing of the past among millions in Nigeria if the wheat production and processing is taken as a serious industry.

Goal 2* Zero Hunger
The northeast insurgency crisis, northern region insecurities and the unrest in most of the southern parts of Nigeria has resulted in food insecurity affecting more than 90% of the population, having many head of households killed during the crisis leaving behind a heavy burden for the women to take over the responsibility of feeding the orphans and other members of the family. The region is faced daily by human-induced disasters of various societal crimes, ranging from kidnapping, rapes, killings and all forms of attacks are perpetrated forcing fear into the heart of everyone especially the women who must now wear the shoes of their husbands to bring food to the table. Wheat production can become a source of decent incomes for the unemployed and for the many individuals who have lost all their means of livelihood hence a driver for rural development. The term “back to the farm” is not new to Nigerians from the poor to the politician; are seen always finding their way back to the farm to till and produced food which is more than ever before a very rewarding sector for food provision; in Nigeria most retired public office holder, are enticingly lured back into farming as a means of engagement to keep busy, after their former routine work schedule that they are hitherto used to before leaving office.

Goal 3* Good Health And Well-being
Animal, plant and environmental health is necessary for sustainable food production and healthy people. The forest and fisheries are sources of food as an important provider of nutritious food; the promotion and provision of fruit and vegetables for health and wellbeing needs to be encouraged. The best method of cooking and consumption of wheat cereal will enhance the well being of all, by encouraging more the used of whole wheat in meals in order to benefits from the natural nutrients that is contain in the unrefined wheat grain; thus changing daily diets can improve on the health of the people and the planet.

Goal 4* Quality Education
Educating the people on the importance of personal lifestyle choices in relation to the future sustainability and food security of the planet is as crucial as making the right choices in daily meal consumption. Replacing unhealthy meal will assist in improving the health of people and the planet; plant based food choices are better than animal based food that have much more adverse impacts on the environment, thus public enlightenment and information is necessary.

Goal 5* Gender Equality
The Nigerian women are deeply involved in agriculture, the petty trading in food stuffs and snacks; women play a great role in helping to achieve and attain the essential household food security. It is worthy of note that women be given the necessary attention to have access to land and natural resources which will go a long way to improve on their limitations to produce and procure food in their various backyard gardens or farms and small cottage industry. Most women in Nigeria are now head of households because they are caregivers and the responsibility of not only cooking but feeding the extended families lies on their shoulders; it is necessary to take care of all that matters in food and agriculture in making the burden less bothersome for the women in Nigeria.

Goal 6* Clean Water And Sanitation
The water use in agriculture and especially wheat production needs to be environmentally friendly which involves producing more wheat grains by the use of clean and less water while help to build resilience of farming communities in northern Nigeria to cope with droughts and floods that are prevalent during the raining seasons. Poor hygiene and water scarcity can affect food security in wheat production and processing.

Goal 7* Affordable And Clean Energy
The wheat production and processing needs to find better ways to deliver the best wheat by-products with less and cleaner by moving away from the use of fossil fuel and moving towards renewable energy sources that will help in reducing the impacts on climate change. The solution lies in energy smart food systems which can also ensure food security especially in wheat production and processing.
The wheat Biofuel will help cut down on cost, reduce carbon footprint and fossil fuels consumption. Biofuel from energy crops such as wheat burn cleaner than fossil fuels, thereby releases less of carbon dioxide pollutants and greenhouse gas into the atmospheric space. The use of wheat as energy crop is on the rise leading to the diversion of the much needed food for animals and people to Biofuel, consequently causing price spike of the wheat spikes right from the farms.

Goal 8* Decent Work And Economic Growth
The unemployment rate in Nigeria is growing daily and only the agricultural sector of the wheat industry can absorb and solve the millions of unskilled, skilled, uneducated and educated unemployed Nigerians. Wheat production is inadequate in Nigeria where almost all daily meals consists of at least two or more servings of the wheat byproducts, consequently supply can not meet demands for the wheat grain. The government of the day needs policies that will generate decent jobs not only in rural communities but also in the urban centers; by helping to grant loans and access to finance for smallholder managers to increase their business investment and also help take youths off the streets to be gainfully employed and engaged.

Goal 9* Industry, Innovation And Infrastructure.
Sustainability is as vital as the atmospheric air necessary for the healthy survival and sustenance of people and the planet; the food supply chain is not an exception, hence the need for food products that are sustainably grown, processed, packaged and delivered for healthy eating. Wheat farmers must grow wheat with sustainability in mind from farm to food; technologically growing with latest innovation in ensuring that wheat farms keep on growing for future generation.
A sustainable future in agriculture is reflected in sustainable faming practices such as agronomic practices, research and development for innovative ways in reducing inputs to produce high quality and yield wheat varieties, with better farming methods, good transportation pathway is necessary in reducing footprints.
The Sustainability of wheat production must involve working differently and directly with wheat growers on smaller farms and mills to impact modern day technological knowledge skills and the best use of available small-scale equipment in order to facilitate better storage and processing that is required to get the wheat from the small holder farms to the small bakery owners; for the sustainable organic wheat production it is vital to make infrastructures available. The agricultural technology and innovation will greatly improve crop seeds varieties and increase crop yields.

Goal 10* Reduced Inequality
The inequality existing between the people must be bridged in order to remove the unfair treatment of the less privileged in the community from deprivation due to poverty; where the rural poor and the uneducated are denied basic right such as infrastructure, employment, equity and social protection. The Nigerian women, youth and the poor must have equal right to health, credit facilities, access to farmland and farm inputs such as improved seedlings, good education on the best method for wheat production and processing that will improve their lives and livelihood especially for those willing to engage in wheat production.

Goal 11* Sustainable Cities And Communities
An all inclusive food security to check on the fluctuating food prices that is rising indiscriminately due to greed of middle men who buy food grains such as wheat at a much more cheaper price from rural farmers only to inflate the price for city dwellers who depend solely on food purchases to survive. The local farmers make no meaningful income from their farm produce while the urban people are cheated out of their hard earned income; price control will put a check on food price increases and insecurities in the agricultural sector as a whole.

Goal 12* Responsible Consumption And Production
Health is healthy eating, and sustainable health can only be achieved if people adopt and adapt to nutritious and healthy diets; it is important to engage in safe food production and processing with less environmental footprints such as demanding less of refined wheat products that cause a lot of food losses and wastes that occurs during series of processing the wheat grain into a final byproducts, just few amongst many issues in the wheat production chain that contributes to climate change.

Goal 13* Climate Action
The best of agricultural practices for increase productivity and food production will assist in maintaining the ecosystem that is better adaptable to climate change of extreme weather and drought all across Nigeria, in order to avert flooding and natural disasters, subsequently help improve land and soil quality.
Globally, climate change is identified as being responsible for damages and destruction of the ecosystem; it is vital to maintain environmental sustainability by reducing the breeding of animals such as cattle for meat consumption in order to curtail the ever increasing challenge of environmental sustainability. Accepting and adapting to plant based meal if not completely but partially will reduce immensely the environmental footprints associated with meat production and consumption.

Goal 14* Life Below Water
The use of dangerous chemical fertilizer can cause pollution, consequently, affect not only the wheat crop but can easily find its way into the oceans and seas thereby affecting the natural ecosystems, destroying marine life. Life below water is as essential as life above it because what affect one affects the other; in production and processing of the wheat grains, a lot of care and caution must be taken to avoid pollutants into the waters which ultimately is recycled back to feed the crops and the people.

Goal 15* Life On Land
The most vulnerable in the society are the women who are always at the receiving end of insecurity and war, handed over the burden of caring and providing for the entire family by hook or crook leading many women to become victims of circumstances. A secure and equal access to land for the widows and especially women will assist them in food production immensely, to feed their families and also to generate revenue for other households essentials without becoming a liability or ending up on the dusty streets as beggars with their back strapped babies screaming their lungs out.

Goal 16* Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
People must be accountable for their crimes and injustice upon others, therefore access to justice for all and building accountable institutions at all levels becomes crucial, especially at a time when relative peace is gradually finding its footing in the northeast, it is necessary for local government and judicial systems to take action in compensating victims of the insecurity in order to reclaim their land and their dignity for them to start life afresh; preferably if they so wish, going into the wheat production which is now an essentially expensive food crop especially in Nigeria. The relative peace in the northeast has made it possible for most farmers to go back to their ancestral home and prepare for farming; as long as peace and security are sustain the agrarian communities all over Nigeria would be too happy to go back to farm and work very hard for sustainable food production and security.
The northeast is facing food crises and malnutrition due to the over a decade insurgency Crisis that has resulted in the sacking of rural communities who are the major farmers and food producers, moving them into the city to live as beggars; farmers for over the 12 years of insecurity were denied access to their farms, consequently, all food produce in the northeast were brought into the region as relief aids; turning the once upon a time region of farmers to a collection centers for charity aids and relief materials from NGOs, wealthy individuals and charity organizations. It is necessary for the rural population who are mostly farmers and who are the most affected to get back their ancestral homes and farms; to be compensated for psychological trauma, the lose of their properties, livelihood and lives. The Lake Chad Basin is a fertile land for food production, therefore, their proper rehabilitation and interventions would ensure increase in wheat production and subsequently food security in Nigeria. The recurring conflicts between farmers and nomadic herders must be urgently addressed in order to end the lingering conflicts over land access and resources by providing sustainable solutions to the issues on ground such as a ranch or what is generally refer to as “Ruga” in Fulani meaning rural grazing area for herders and their animals in Nigeria; the implementation of “Ruga” settlements though a controversial one is believed, hopefully to help curb open grazing of animals that are a great security threats to farmers, herders and the Nigerian people. The building of strong institutions for Peace and justice is a powerful driving force for achieving food security all across regional communities in Nigeria.

Goal 17* Partnerships To Achieve The Goal
The government must play the important role by taking that crucial and life saving steps to enhance food security through a sustainable national food security acts, that would aid in strengthening agriculture especially in wheat production through the provision of irrigation facilities especially in the northern region that are faced with limited rainfalls and drought. Also necessary is the provisions of improved crop seeds varieties and increased investment through international cooperation in agricultural production especially of the wheat, being one of highly valued crops all over the world.

Nigeria might be able to save the billions of dollars in imports of wheat, flour and wheat byproducts which would ensure sustainability of food security in the agricultural sector, contribute to foreign reserves that will ultimately support economic growth.
Nigeria as an importing country of wheat grain to meet the ever increasing demand for wheat by-product must take the giant leap as the Giant of Africa to produce wheat locally for the nation, the continent and the world as a whole.
The wheat crop weighty position all over the world can never be underestimated, making available food to feed millions of humans and animals daily; What food is not to be with the wholesome wheat as a major or minor ingredient before reaching the serving plates and palates of people across the globe!